Educators must be aware of the risk factors and indications of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC) and human trafficking in their school community.

CSEC and Human Trafficking Protocol 

Access the CSEC and Human Trafficking Protocol for Educators to familiarize yourself with at-risk factors and learn how to handle suspected or actual exploitation of students.

At-Risk Factors

If "at-risk" factors are present, make a Child Welfare Report. Children are at risk of being commercially sexually exploited if at least one of the following factors is present:

  • Child/youth exhibits behaviors or otherwise indicates that they are being controlled or groomed by another person.
  • Child/youth spends time with people known to be involved in commercial sex.
  • Child/youth’s internet, cell phone, or social media use involves social or sexual behavior that is atypical for his/her age.

Children are at risk of being commercially sexually exploited if at least two of the following indicators are present:

  • Child/youth has a history of running away, unstable housing, including multiple foster care placements, or periods of homelessness, including couch surfing.
  • Child/youth has had prior involvement with law enforcement or the juvenile justice system.
  • Child/youth is frequently truant from school.
  • Child/youth’s relationships are of concern, placing them at risk or in danger of exploitation.
  • Child/youth has a history of substance abuse, specifically narcotics, opiates, crack/cocaine and amphetamines.

Suspected or Confirmed Recruitment and Exploitation of Students

If you suspect recruitment or victims of CSEC/human trafficking on a school campus, or confirmed exploitation or victims of CSEC/human trafficking, involve local law enforcement for investigation and follow the steps in the CSEC and Human Trafficking Protocol for Educators.

Toolkit for Building a Human Trafficking School Safety Protocol

The , released in December 2022 by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, helps schools and school districts plan, develop, and implement a Human Trafficking Student Safety Protocol (HTSSP) to ensure consistent support is offered to all students impacted by trafficking.

The toolkit includes an HTSSP development timeline, checklist, and template to support school and district administrators in this work.

小蓝视频 CSEC Symposium

The issue of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC) is pervasive in our community. It is a social justice issue and cannot be addressed without acknowledging economic and racial intersections. Exploiters prey on our most vulnerable youth, taking advantage of their isolation, insecurity, and other risk factors. This only intensified during the pandemic due to the increased use of social media as a primary connector to the outside world. In 2021, the County Office of Education co-hosted a CSEC Symposium featuring local and national experts in the field, including a survivor leader, to both inform and inspire action.

Mary McGrath

Executive Director, Safe and Supportive Schools


Phone: (650) 802-5425